UTitshalakazi, unoZaku-zaku womZabalazo & neTsha-ntliziyo lamaLungelo oLuntu (1935 – 1988)

Xa uJakobus noSusan September babesamkela ukuzalwa komntwana wabo wesibini ngomhla wama-30 ku-Agasti 1938 eGleemore Estate e-Athlone, ayizange ithi qatha nokuthi qatha ezingqondweni zabo into yokuba le ntombi yabo, uDulcie Evonne September wayeza kuba ngumlweli wenkululeko obomi bakhe obabuza kunqanyulwa yimbumbulu yesigwinta kwelaseFransi. UDulcie September waba ngowasetyhini wokuqala ukuba kwisikhundla sozakuzo njengoMmeli oyiNtloko we-ANC ukuba agwintwe esenza umsebenzi wakhe kwelinye ilizwe ekwiphulo lenkululeko labantu bakhe.

Ibali likaDulcie liqala ngemfundo yakhe kumabanga aphantsi kwiMishini yamaWesile eseKlipfontein wandula waya kwiSikolo samaBanga aPhakamileyo sase-Athlone. Iziseko zakhe kwezepolitiki zaqala e-Athlone apho wathi wazibonela umsantsa okhoyo phakathi kwendawo awayehlala kuyo kwakunye nabelungu ababenamathuba amahle ababehlala ngaphaya komzila kaloliwe.

ITsha-ntliziyo eliseLula

Ngo-1955 waphumelela kwiSikolo soQeqesho samaWesile eSalt River ephethe iDiploma yobuTitshala. Waqala ukusebenza kwiSikolo seMishini yesiXeko eMaitland. Ngo-1956 wangena kwisikhundla esitsha kwiSikolo samaBanga aPhantsi kwiMpuma yeBridgetown e-Athlone waza wazimanya noMbutho wooTitshala baseMzantsi Afrika. Kulapha apho wathi wabandakanyeka kuMbutho wabaFundi boSinga-siqithi weKapa waza wangena kwikhondo lezepolitiki. Njengabo bonke abantu abaselula ngeli xesha wakha wazama amaqumrhu awohlukeneyo ezepolitiki awathi avela kwishumi leminyaka ngaphambili njengoMbutho woManyano waseMzantsi Afrika.

Phakathi kweentlangano awarhwetyeshelwa kuzo yaba luManyano lweDemokhrasi lwama-Afrika aseMzantsi Afrika (APDUSA) olwaphuma kuMbutho woManyano. Kodwa ke, uDulcie yayimthez’ amandla into awayibiza ngokuthi kukuyonwabela kwe-APDUSA kwanoMbutho woManyano imeko egqubayo. Yayingehli kamnandi nento esisifilifili yootitshala ababekwimisebenzi ekhuselekileyo karhulumente ababesithi ngabo kuphela abasendleleni yokwenyani ‘yomzabalazo’ wezepolitiki. Lwaba lukhulu ukruthakruthwano nokujongana ngezikhondo zamehlo kwimibutho yezepolitiki ngelo xesha mayela nomntu ekunokuthiwa usebenzisana notshaba. Le nto yenza ukuba yena nolunye ulutsha baziva bethezek’ amandla yingcaciso engatshuzanga yokusebenzisana nemikhosi yocalu-calulo. Ngeli xesha uDulcie wayeqhogene namatsha-ntliziyo afana nooNeville Alexander, ooMarcus Solomon, oo-Andreas Shipanga, ooFikile Bam nabanye.

IQela eliyiYu Chi Chan

Ekunye namatsha-ntliziyo acinga njengaye awayekhokelwa nguNeville Alexander, uDulcie waba yinxalenye yokusekwa kweqela loophuma-silwe elalibizwa ngokuba liQela eliyiYu Chi Chan. Babekhuthazwa yimvukelo yamaTshayina.

Balichitha eli qela emva nje konyaka kwaza kwathi ngo-1963 kwayilwa uMbutho weNkululeko yeSizwe (i-NLF). Kwakusiya kukhanya ngokukhanya kwaba baselula ukuba umzabalazo wezigalo kuphela kwendlela eya phambili. Amanye amatsha-ntliziyo elo xesha aquka ooReg September, oo-Alex la Guma, ooBasil February, ooJames April kwanooBarney Desai awathi asebenza ngokufihlakeleyo aza aya elubhacweni ukuya kwamkela umzabalazo wezigalo kunye noMkhonto weSizwe, iphiko lomkhosi le-African National Congress (i-ANC). Phakathi kwabo babedla ngokubona sele kukho oongcothoza botshaba ngenxa yengcinezelo nokuphoswa eziseleni kwesiquphe okwayibetha yasadalala iNLF ngelilixa babesazama ukuyivusa. Amaqabane alishumi e-NLF kuquka uDulcie aphoswa eziseleni ngo-Oktobha waloo nyaka, evalelwe kwiNtolongo eseRoeland Street ngaphandle kokuvavanywa kwetyala labo. Basiwa enkundleni ngezityholo zokuqulunqa iyelenqe lobhukuqo-mbuso nokuphemba ubundlobongela bezepolitiki phantsi koMthetho weNkqubo yezoLwaphulo-Mthetho baza bagwetywa ngomhla we-15 ku-Apreli 1964. UDulcie wathiwa nkaa ngeminyaka emihlanu eqamele ngenqindi.

Xa wakhululwayo ngo-1969 kwangoko wabekwa phantsi komyalelo wokuvalw’ umlomo iminyaka emihlanu. Le nto yamboph’ izandla neenyawo ekusebenzeni njengotitshalakazi nakubomi bakhe babahlobo nosapho. Emva kweminyaka emine ephantsi komyalelo wokuvalw’ umlomo ngoSeptemba uDulcie wafak’ isicelo sokuphum’ aphele kweli loMzantsi Afrika. Wenjenjeya ngenqanawa esiya phesheya esiya elubhacweni e-United Kingdom. Apho wafika wasebenza kwiKholeji yezeMfundo yaseMadeley eStaffordshire.

Kwelo lase-UK wazimanya noMbutho oChasene noCalu-calulo waza emva koko wabeka phantsi ekusebenzeni njengotitshalakazi ukuze asebenzele kwiNgxowa-mali yamaZwe ngamaZwe yoKhuselo noNcedo lwamaZantsi e-Afrika. E-UK wazibandakanya noReg kwanoHettie September kunye no-Alex kwanoBlanche la Guma abathi bamxhasa baze bokha amaqhina aluqilima. Ngo-1976 wenza isigqibo sokuzimanya ne-ANC waza wasebenza ngenkuthalo kuMbutho wamaKhosikazi ale ntlangano.

IQonga lamaZwe ngamaZwe

Ukubhengezwa kuka-1979 njengoNyaka woMntwana (IYC) lixesha uDulcie September awenyukela ngalo ekubeni nendumasi. Wonyulwa njengosihlalo weKomiti ye-IYC ye-ANC eLondon esebenza namanye amatsha-ntliziyo anjengoo-Ilva McKay no-Eleanor Kasrils. Wazifaka zatshon’ iinzipho ekulweleni amalungelo abantwana njengoko kwakuqhutywa iinkomfa eFransi, eFinland naseKhanada. Wayekwasebenza nee-NGO, oorhulumente, amaqumrhu amakhosikazi amazwe ngamazwe kwaneZizwe eziManyeneyo. Ekusebenzeni kwakhe wadibana namakhosikazi angoophuma-silwe benkululeko afana nooHettie September, ooFlorence Mophosho, ooLindiwe Mabuza kwanooMankekolo Mahlangu. Ngalixa lithile wakha wacelwa ukuba azimase ingqungquthela yeNtlangano yezabaSebenzi yamaZwe ngamaZwe (ILO) e-Arusha eTanzania, ekunye no-Eleanor Kasrils.

Ikhwelo elahlatywa e-Afrika labangela uDulcie afuduke esiya kusebenza ngokusisigxina kwikomkhulu le-ANC eLusaka, kwiKomiti yezePolitiki yeNgingqi. Wonyulwa njengosihlalo wekomiti yamalungiselelo enkomfa yoMbutho wamaKhosikazi e-ANC eyayiza kubanjelwa eKabwe, kwelaseZambia naseLuanda, kwelase-Angola. Yonke le nto yayiyinxalenye yemibhiyozo yokuGqiba iminyaka engama-25 koSuku lwamaNina eMzantsi Afrika. Wakwakhethelwa ukuhamba noMittah Seperepere ekumeleni iCandelo lamaNina e-ANC kwiNkongolo yamaNina eHlabathi yokuLingana, uziMele-geqe weLizwe kwanoXolo eyayibanjelwe ePrague, kwelaseCzechoslovakia ngo-Oktobha 1981.

Wabekelwa ukwenza lo msebenzi uDulcie September kaloku njengoMmeli oyiNtloko we-ANC kwelaseFransi, eSwitzerland naseLuxembourg ngo-1983. Kwafuneka ukuba uDulcie owanguMmeli oyiNtloko afumane uqeqesho lwezomkhosi yaye wazigqiba izifundo ezimfutshane kwelaseSoviet Union. NjengoMmeli oyiNtloko, omnye wemisebenzi yakhe ephambili yayikukuququzelela inkxaso ngaphakathi eFransi, eSwitzerland naseLuxembourg ngenjongo yokuqhawula ubudlelwane botyalo-zimali kwanokhanywa korhulumente waseMzantsi Afrika ngokoqoqosho. Ngelo xesha iFransi yayibonelela ngenxalenye enkulu yeenqwelo-moya zomkhosi nezolwandle eMzantsi Afrika.

ICuba yayisoloko iyinto emkhuthazayo uDulcie September yaye ngomhla we-11 ku-Oktobha 1985 xa u-Alex la Guma, uMmeli oyiNtloko ye-ANC eCuba wathi wayibek’ inqawa, uDulcie waya eHavana ukuya kunika inkxaso nentuthuzelo kuBlanche la Guma. Kwisithuba nje seenyanga ezili-9 ezalandelayo uDulcie wawayengene waphelela kwiqonga lamazwe ngamazwe eququzelela ukuthiwa nkxii koMzantsi Afrika yiFransi namanye amazwe.

Kwiminyaka engaphezu kwemibini uDulcie walibopha waligangatha iqulo equbisana norhulumente waseFransi nowoMzantsi Afrika ngokuthi ancede ekwakheni omnye wemibutho eluqilima echasene noCalu-calulo eYurophu, owawusekwe kumazwe amathathu awayesebenza ngawo. Wagalela yagxadazela yonke iYurophu. Waququzelela iphulo elabangelwa kukubanjwa nokuvalelwa kukaPierre Andre Albertini ngenxa yemisebenzi yezepolitiki enxulumene ne-ANC. Ngexesha lokubanjwa kwakhe ngabasemagunyeni bocalu-calulo lo ka-Albertini wayeqashwe njengomhlohli wesiFrentshi kwiYunivesithi yaseFort Hare, njengenxalenye yenkqubo yokufuthelana ngolwazi kaRhulumente waseFransi. Iphulo likaDulcie lalisithi makakhululwe lo mfo.

Le yayiyinyoba yokuqinisa iphulo lokukhanywa koqoqosho yaye ngokukhawuleza wabonakala eyingozi kumaqumrhu anamandla aseYurophu arhweba ngezixhobo ngondlela-mnyama.

Kwathi kanti uDulcie uyibamb’ emsileni inyoka. KwiBelgium eselumelwaneni uMmeli oyiNtloko we-ANC uGodfrey Motsepe wasinda ngokulambisa kwiinzame ezimbini ezaphanzayo zokumbulala. Kodwa uDulcie wazikhaba izicelo ezibini zeenkokeli ze-ANC zokuba emke kule ndawo eyingozi. Ngomhla wama-29 kuMatshi 1988, eneminyaka engama-53 uDulcie September wabulawelwa phambi kwe-ofisi ye-ANC eParis. Wadutyulwa izihlandlo ezintlanu ngasemva ngombayimbayi othuleyo oziikhalibha ezingama-22 njengoko wayevula i-ofisi yakhe emveni kokulanda iposi.

Ngabazili abangama-20,000 abeza kugxwal’ emswaneni ngomngcwabo wakhe. UDulcie ukhunjulwa kulo lonke ihlabathi ngezitrato neendawo ezithiywe ngaye; kubhalwa ngaye ezincwadini nakumanqaku; kukwabhalwa ngaye kwimidlalo yeqonga, imizobo kwaneengoma.

Wayeyintwazana yaseKapa engumayitshe, eyathi njengowasetyhini yahlutshezwa kukuvalelwa ezintolongweni nayimiyalelo eyayimval’ umlomo. Wagxanya ehamba lonke eli limiweyo waza waqubisana nezijama-nkungwini zemikhosi yocalu-calulo. Le ntombi yakwaSeptember yaxolel’ ukujing’ iliso yaza yafa ukuze izizukulwana ezizayo zikhululeke.

Ukubulawa kukaDulcie September kukholelwa ekubeni kwaqhutywa zizigwinta ezazithunywe ngurhulumente wocalu-calulo, ekunokwenzeka ukuba nenkonzo yezobuntloli yaseFransi yaba nesandla koku okanye imigewu yolwaphulo-mthetho yamazwe ngamazwe erhweba ngezixhobo, amandla enyukliya kwane-oyile.

Umdlalo weqonga onomlinganiswa omnye obalisa ngobomi bakhe obhalwe nguBasil Appollis kwanoSylvia Vollenhoven nolinganiswa nguDenise Newman kwacelwa ukuba udlalwe eParis kumnyhadala wezenkcubeko waseFransi. ITyala elingekaSonjululwa – UkuQwalasela ngokuTsha uDulcie September waphumelela iMbasa eyi-Adelaide Tambo yamaLungelo oLuntu kwezoBugcisa.

Imithombo eCatshuliweyo

ANC Biography Brief, Dulcie September 1935-1988; www.anc.org.za
Groenink Evelyn, Dulcie, Hani, Lubowski – A story that could not be told (2013).
ANC Today, Dulcie September: A dedicated cadre cut down by act of cowardice; (August 2002).
Khumalo Fred, A muse for the misunderstood; (Sunday Times, 15 September 2009).