UMenzi weMvula, umBalisi & nomNtu onomBono circa 1815 – 26 Januwari 1876

Ngo-1870 //uKabbo umThwa wayetshay’ inqawa, owayenombono nowayeqhutywa ngumnqweno wakhe wokukhusela inkcubeko yakhe esemngciphekweni, ubetha ngezikaTshiwo kangangamakhulukhulu eemayile ukuya kufumana abantu basezidolophini awevayo ukuba bangakwazi ukubhala amabali baze bawagcine ezincwadini. Isiphumo seli phulo lombono yaba nguvimba owabhalwa ngaphezu kweentsuku eziliwaka. Ngaphezu kwenkulungwane emva koko wafakwa kwiRejista yeNkumbulo yeHlabathi ye-UNESCO.

UVimba kaBleek/Lloyd, okwiYunivesithi yaseKapa, uneencwadi ezingaphezu kwekhulu namaphepha abhaliweyo angaphezu kwe-12,000. Lo ngumsebenzi omkhulu wengcali yoncwadi lwamandulo uWilhelm Bleek, usibarikazi wakhe uLucy Lloyd kwanezazi zabo. //uKabbo /Uhi-ddoro Jantje Tooren wayesisazi esiyintloko.

Malunga neenkulungwane ezimbini ezadlulayo inkwenkwe egama lingu/Han≠i≠i – egama layo lobuntwana elithetha ukuthi umNqweno kaYise – yazalwa ngosuku lwasebusika ngo-1815 kwindawana ekufuphi neKenhardt eMntla Koloni. Kuyo yonk’ indawo engqonge iBitterputs Well abantu bayabhiyoza. Lo ngumntwana wesithandathu kaGwa-/ka no!Kwi-An kwaye unesiphiwo esisuka kuninakhulu ozala unina ukuya kutsho kunina.

Kungo-1815, unyaka uNapoleon owoyiswa ngawo eWaterloo yaza iBritani yaba ligunya elinamandla leNkulungwane ye-19. Loo nto itheth’ ukuthi iKapa laba yiKoloni yeBritani okwesibini, ekubeni yaphinda yathathwa kumaDatshi. Iindimbane zabaFiki ababechasene neBritani, amafama awayethe nca izisu emqolo yindlala, afudukela ngaphakathi elizweni.

Ungquzulwano lweeNkcubeko

U/Han≠i≠I inkwenkwana eyathiywa ngokomnqweno kayise kwanomntwana oneziphiwo ezinqabileyo, uyakhula uyanyelela ngelo xesha xa abafiki yaye maxa wambi namanye ama-Afrika bephum’ iphulo lokubatshayela kuthi tu abantu bakhe. Wazifumana ebhidekile. Kuba ngapha yayingabantu bakhe ama/Xam-ka! ei ababekhokelwa ngabo balele kwelemimoya kwabe kukho oonothwal’ impahlana ababelambel’ umhlaba. Imikhosi yaBhulu angamaDatshi, maxa wambi eyayincedwa ngamaKorana namaKhoekhoe, yayisithela ngento ababeyiza ngokuthi ‘kukuphuma ingqina’. Eyona nto ababephezu kwayo, kodwa eyayigcinwa iyimfihlo kwabasemagunyeni, yayikukubulawa kwesininzi sama/Xam-ka !ei.

Xa le ntwana yayineminyaka nje elithoba ubudala kwafika indlala ebomvu eyasuba ubomi bukayise nabakhuluwa bayo ababini. Emveni kokungeniswa kwayo ebuntwini obukhulu emva kokuzingela kwayo okokuqala yanikwa igama lobudoda elingu//Kabbo, umNtu onomBono okanye umPhuphi. Wayengumfana osandul’ ukungena kwiminyaka yamashumi amathathu xa irhuluneli yekoloni yaseBritani yandisa imida yeKoloni yaseKapa, ithatha phantse wonke umhlaba wabantu bakhe. //UKabbo waba nombono othi ufanele alilwe eli dabi, ufanele aziphindezelele.

UMbutho weMvukelo

Lo mPhuphi, abafiki ababembiza ngokuba nguJantje Tooren babe abahlobo bakhe bemazi ngokuba ngu/Uhi-ddoro uVutha, uqula aligangathe esiya kuLwa. Abelungu babiza aba Phuma-siLwe ngokuthi ‘liQela likaTooren’. Bathi bakhangela iinkomo zabo bona qwaba. La matsha-ntliziyo wona aziphindezelela kulo ndyikityha yokubulawa kohlanga. Agalela ityhefu kwiindawo ezinamanzi, eba imfuyo yabafiki aza ahlasela amafama angabafiki. IQela likaTooren laba ngamakroti ama!Xam-ka !ei. Abasemagunyeni beekoloni zaseBritani abakwiindawo ezikude zeKapa babengakwazi ukulwa neendlela zowo zobunqolobi. Amafama amaDatshi angabavukeli nawo afunda kule ndlela yabemi bomthonyama yemvukelo kubantu baka//Kabbo aze ayisebenzisa kwiMfazwe yawo namaBritani.

Akakho umntu owayewazi ngcono lo mhlaba kuno//Kabbo namatsha-ntliziyo akhe kuba lo yayingumhlaba wabo. Babezazi iinduli neengxingwa zawo. Babezazi izilwanyana nezityalo zawo. Babewazi amaxesha onyaka kwaneengozi zalapha. Okubaluleke nangakumbi babeyazi nasebusuku le ndawo ukuba ime njani. Bathi ke xa bethetha, olu lwazi lwadluliselwa ukusuka kubaNtu bokuQala. Iintshaba zabo zazisengxakini enkulu. Kodwa lo mPhuphi kunye nooPhuma-silwe bakhe babengenakukwazi ukumelana nemikhosi exhobileyo eya isanda ngokwanda. Abasemagunyeni obukholoniyali eKapa bakhupha imbuyekezo mayela nokubanjwa kwenkokeli yeQela likaTooren.

U//Kabbo wayenombono onamandla ngaphezu kwalowo wamenza waqalisa umLo wemvukelo. Lo mfo onomBono owayethanda inqawa nowaziwa ngokuthi ngu/Uhi-ddoro uVutha, ubona ukuba usindiso lwabantu bakhe luxhomekeke kumabali abo. Uthi ke aphuphe ngowasetyhini ongumfiki oza kukwazi ukuva ulwimi lwama/Xam noza kuthi awabhale ephepheni amabali abo. Iphupha lakhe lithi la mabali aza kubahlangula abantu bakhe ekutshatyalalisweni ngokupheleleyo.

U//Kabbo umBalisi oPhambili wamaBali, oyaziyo indawo yakhe ngaphezu kwakhe nawuphina umzingeli, uyavuma ukuba yena nabanye oophuma-silwe bakhe bathinjwe. Abasemagunyeni bamakholoniyali babaphosa ngaphaya kwezitshixo eKapa apho amabanjwa efanele enze ingqumba entsha yokuthintela amanzi kwichweba laseTable Bay.

ImiKhosi iyaHlangana

Njengokuba kusoloko kusiba njalo ngamabali, imikhosi eyahlanganayo ngokuchasene nombono ka//Kabbo onamandla icanda amazwekazi. KwelaseJamani uGqr. uWilhelm Bleek, isifundiswa esithanda imfundo owayeman’ ukukhathazwa yimpilo, sitsaleleka e-Afrika ukuza kufunda ngeelwimi ezitshabalalayo. EBritani usapho lukaLucy Lloyd, irhulunelikazi, lulandela ekuqaleni kokufika kwabaFiki boo-1820 luze luye eThekwini. Esinde ngezikaSibi kutata wakhe oxhaphazayo uLucy nodadewabo uJemima bahlangana nengcali yeelwimi uGqr. Bleek. Akubi kudala ngaphambi kokuba uJemima noWilhelm batshate eKapa. Kungelo xesha apho uGqr. Bleek okhathazwa yimpilo kodwa ozimiseleyo eqalisa umsebenzi wakhe weelwimi ewenza kwizigaba zokugqibela zobomi bakhe encedwa ngusibarikazi wakhe uLucy.

Malunga neli xesha kupasiswa umthetho oshenxisa umda wePhondo leKapa ukusuka eSak ukuya kumlambo i-Orange River, ngolo hlobo kuthathwa imihlaba engakumbi kakhulu yokuzingela yama/Xam. Xa bezama ukondla iintsapho zabo, abantu abaninzi ngakumbi abafana no//Kabbo bayabanjwa kusithiwa beba imfuyo baze basiwe kwiNtolongo iBreakwater.

Kwintwasahlobo ka-1870 uGqr. Wilhelm Bleek noLucy Lloyd bahamba entolongweni bekhangela abantu abanokubanceda baqulunqe isichazi-magama solwimi olutshabalalayo lwama/Xam. Ekuqaleni bahamba no-Akunta, ongomnye wamalungu aselula eQela likaTooren, ukuba aye kuhlala nabo kwindlu yabo ebizwa ngokuba yiNduli yaseMowbray. Kodwa emveni kweenyanga ezimbalwa ebafundisa ngolwimi lwakhe nokubalisa amabali akhe kwabakwaBleek nakwabaLloyd u-Akunta uthi badinga izakhono zika//Kabbo, iNgcali yomBalisi wamaBali. Kutshiwo ke ukuba inxalenye yokuqala yomBono wePhupha lika//Kabbo yaba yinyani.

Xa u//Kabbo umNtu onomBono ebona uLucy Lloyd nosibari wakhe befuna izazi kwiNtolongo iBreakwater, uyaqonda ukuba lo wasetyhini ngulo ebekade embona emaphupheni akhe. Abasemagunyeni bentolongo bamnika imvume yokuba afudukele kwindlu yakwaBleek ebizwa ngokuba yiNduli yaseMowbray.

Ukuqala kwam ukufunda amabali abumbongorha ka//Kabbo kuvimba wooBleek-Lloyd, ndasokola ukuqonda iintetha zamandulo ezingaqhelekanga. Ndididwa ngumbhalo othe watolikwa ngeendlela ezohlukeneyo, ngokusebenzisa isakhono sikaLucy Lloyd’s sesingesi sakudala. Kodwa esi sipho esingulo vimba ngumsebenzi wobugcisa esinokuthi siwamkele size siwenze owethu. Ndiqalisa ukudlala ngelifa asishiyele lona ukuze ndifumanise indyebo engabhalwanga, ebonwayo kuloo mazwi.

ILifa Lethu leMveli kwi-UN

Ngo-1997 ingqokelela yooLloyd-Bleek yeentsomi zamaSan yafakwa kwiRejista ye-UNESCO yeeNkumbulo zeHlabathi. Eli lilifa lemveli elaziwa yinkoliso yezizukulwana zika//Kabbo kwanama/Xam-ka !ei alwimi lwawo lwatshatyalaliswayo.

Abantu bethu abathwaxwa lulwaphulo-mthetho, ukukhotyokiswa zizinto ezithile nabubuhlwempu bangazuza lukhulu kumandla anempiliso amabali ka//Kabbo. Kunoba sikhulise abantwana bethu ngeentsomi zasemzini singabafundisa ukuzidla nokuzazi ukuba bangoobani ngamabali anjengala:

The girl arose, the girl of the Early Race
!Xwe-|na-ssho-!ke
She put her hands into the wood ash
Threw it up into the sky. She said to the wood ash
You must become the Milky Way
You must white lie along in the sky
The Milky Way is the Milky Way
while it used to be wood ash
My mother is the one who told me

Njengoko sikhuthazwa yimifanekiso yentwazana yomThwa isarhaza iinkwenkwezi esibhakabhakeni, singazibhaqa sesijonga intsingiselo yobomi bethu, kwimbali ekuphikiswana ngayo yelizwe lethu. Thina, esizizizukulwana zamadodaaziingqondi’ afana noo/Han≠i≠i //Kabbo /Uhi-ddoro Jantje Tooren, siye sasuswa kuyo yonke imbali esemthethweni.

Babekwambiza u//Kabbo ngokuthi nguMntwana weZulu kuba wayekwazi ukuyalela imvula. Elinye igama lakhe elinguVutha okanye u/Uhi-ddoro lalibonisa amandla akhe okwenza imilingo, okanye okuzisa ukukhanya. U//Kabbo umbalisi wamabali wayekwazi ukubangela intelekelelo. Wayemqonda u//Kaggen uMntwana weZulu, ukubaluleka kweNdalo Jikelele eyindidane. Elelo bakwana li-ethe-ethe ukanti evela abe mkhulu kuyo nayiphina imeko ayikhethayo. Ngamany’ amaxesha wayesiba yimvuzemvuze ngobubele, maxa wambi akhohlakale kwaye ikakhulu wayengumphembi wodushe. Abantu bangaphandle abanobunzima bokumqonda bambiza ngokuthi ‘ngumaqhingashe’. Abanye bathi nguSathana ngenkqu. Abangenalwazi bambiza nje ngokuthi “nguthixo woonoqhakancu”. Lo Mntwana weZulu amfanela onke la magama njengoko ebonisa njalo amabali akuvimba wabakwaBleek-Lloyd.

UkuQhagamshelana neziNyanya

URupert Sheldrake, isazi-nzulu kwanombhali waseBritani, owaziwa ngezindululo zakhe malunga ‘nokuguquguquka kweeseli zomzimba’, uthi ukusebenza kwengqondo akuxhomekekanga kwisiqu ekuyo qha, kunjalonje akuvalelekanga ngaphakathi kobuchopho okanye imizimba yethu. Ingcinga idlulela ngaphaya kobuchopho nqwa nonxibelelwano lweselfowuni olungavalelekanga kwisixhobo sesandla. Le ngqiqo yenzululwazi malunga nokunaba kobukho babantu ngunobangela woqhagamshelwano luka//Kabbo kunye namabali ezinyanya zethu. Ehlabathini ngokubanzi kuvele indlela entsha yokucinga, indlela entsha yokuzibona sikwixesha lamandulo. Ngokwale ngqiqo amaxesha angqameneyo avulela ubunyaniso obubonisa intetho ka-Einstein ethi siye sadala ixesha ngenxa yokuba singenakukwazi ukumelana nezinto ezininzi ezenzeka ngexesha elinye.

U//Kabbo waba negalelo kumabali emveli akwingqokelela yabakwaBleek-Lloyd nakwimbali engaye, inkcazelo engembali nenkcubeko. Obu butyebi buxabiseke kunene kubabhali-mbali, ingcali ngemvalaphi yoluntu nakubantu bethu abafuna ukuzuza kuluvo lwama/Xam malunga neziganeko zelo xesha kwiKapa lenkulungwane yeshumi elinethoba okanye abo bafuna ukuqonda inkcubeko yama/Xam. Amabali akhe akwaphawuleka nangobude bawo nangokuyondelelaniswa okuntsonkothileyo kweziganeko. U-Andrew Bank ubhala malunga nelinye ibali elingoJupiter nomntwana wakhe athi, “ligqiba iincwadi ezintlanu, amaphepha angama-300 neenyanga ezintlanu…” ULucy Lloyd waphawula ngo//Kabbo ukuba “wayengumbalisi ogqibeleleyo, yaye wayebukela ngomonde kude kubhalwe isivakalisi sigqitywe, ngaphambi kokuba aqhubele phambili nokubalisa kwakhe. Yayimvuyisa gqitha ingcinga yokuba amabali abaThwa ayeza kwaziwa ngenxa yeencwadi.”

Imithombo eCatshuliweyo, nokuHlonitshwa kwabaNtu abaThile & kwaneeLinki

The Keeper of the Kumm ngokubhalwa nguSylvia Vollenhoven (Tafelberg). Iinkcukacha ezipheleleyo zeprojekthi ethi umGcini weKumm ezibandakanya ifilimu, incwadi (eTafelberg ngo-2016) nohlengahlengiso komdlalo weqonga womculo onokufunyanwa apha www.visioninafrica.com. UKumm ligama elithetha ibali okanye nantoni na ebaliswayo ngokolwimi eselufile ngoku lwama/Xam.

Claim to the Country ngokubhalwa nguPippa Skotnes (Jacana & Ohio University Press)

My Heart Stands In the Hill ngokubhalwa nguJanette Deacon noCraig Foster (Struik)

The Broken String: The Last Words of an Extinct People ngokubhalwa nguNeil Bennum

Bushmen In A Victorian World – The Remarkable story of the Bleek-Lloyd Collection of Bushman folklore ngokubhalwa nguAndrew Bank (Double Story)

The Digital Bleek & Lloyd, University of Cape Town Centre for Curating the Archive (iZiko leYunivesithi yaseKapa loGcino looVimba) http://lloydbleekcollection.cs.uct.ac.za/

The Courage of ||kabbo: Celebrating the 100th anniversary of the publication of Specimens of Bushman Folklore ezihlelwe nguJanette Deacon noPippa Skotnes (UCT Press)