ILitye eliNqabileyo laseDistrict Six

UCissie Gool wayengowasetyhini owayengathethi nje kuba umlomo ungenasiziba ngokuphathelele umzabalazo. Iqonga lakhe lalisoloko likumva welori, okanye kwikona yesitrato. Amaxesha amaninzi wawungamfumana ekhokele umngcelele wezihlwele zabantu njengoko ekhuthaza abantu ukuba beme ngeenyawo bafune amalungelo abo. Wakha wathi ngeny’ imini; “Sanukubukela; zimanyeni nomzabalazo; ngowenu, ngowam; ngowethu. Asivumi.” Ukususela ebuntwaneni bakhe wayezibona iipolitiki yaye wayengengomntu obuya ngamva xa kusiliwa, ingakumbi xa umlo unxulumene nobulungisa.

UZainunnisa ‘Cissie’ Gool ukuqala kwakhe ukungeniswa kwiipolitiki kwakungonina uNellie James, umsoshiyali waseSkotlani noyise uGqr Abdullah Abdurahman onkaba yakhe iseWellington eKapa. Wayengugqirha wezonyango owathwesw’ isidanga kwiYunivesithi yaseGlasgow ngo-1893. UGqr Abdurahman wayelilungu elingumseki nomongameli weNtlangano yezePolitiki yase-Afrika (APO) eyasungulwa ngo-1902. I-APO yaba negalelo elimandla kwiipolitiki zemigushuzo. UNellie Abdurahman wayengumseki nomongameli woManyano lwamaKhosikazi e-APO. UMbutho wama-Afrika aseKhimbali ngoo-1880 kunye ne-APO ngo-1902, yayiziintlangano zokuqala zepolitiki ukusebenzisa igama elithi ama-Afrika ukuchaza zona namalungu azo, inkoliso yawo, awayeyinzala yamakhoboka, abahambi kunye namaKhoena omthonyama, azikhulu zawo ezaziwabiza ngokuthi ‘ngabebala’.

Ngo-1904 uGqr Abdurahman waba ngowokuqala kubantu abantsundu ukonyulelwa kwiBhunga lesiXeko saseKapa, ngexesha apho abelungu abathile babemadolw’ anzima ukuhlala ecaleni kwabantu ‘bebala’. Waqhubeka enguceba wesixeko de kwasekufeni kwakhe xa abantu abantsundu babesavalelekile ekuvoteni.

UkuKhokela isiZukulwana esiLandelayo

UGqr Abdurahman wayekwalilungu leBhunga lePhondo laseKapa ukususela ngo-1914 de kwasekufeni kwakhe ngo-1940. Wayesilwela umdla wabantu abangamahlwempu abasebenzayo eKapa yaye ekuchasile ukucalulwa kwabo, ulawulo lwabelungu nobuhlanga. Kodwa indlela kaGqr Abdurahman yezepolitiki yaphelel’ emoyeni xa kwavela isizukulwana sabantu abasebatsha nababenyanzela izinto abangazange nje baphelele ekuceleni ngesihle, ngokwenza amaphulo kwaye bebongoza abezepolitiki bamakholoniyali. Owayekhokele esi sizukulwana yayiyintombi kaGqr Abdurahman uZainunissa Abdurahman, abo bamthandayo ababembiza ngokuthi ‘Cissie’ okanye ‘uCissie wethu’ (uSisi wethu ukutsho). UCissie Abdurahman iingcambu zakhe zazise-Indiya, eMzantsi Mpuma Asiya nezaseSkotlani. Ngoo-1950 wakhe waxelela intatheli ukuba uyazivuyela iingcambu zakhe ezohlukahlukeneyo:

Zindixhobisile. Ukuba utata wayengazange ahlangane nomama, ngendingekho apha ukuze ndiphendule imibuzo yakho

La mazwi ayekwabonisa ukuba wayeyiqonda impembelelo emandla awayenayo unina ebomini bakhe. Abaninzi babebona nje intombi efuze uyise. Wayezidla ngokuba neengcambu ezininzi.

Uyisemkhulu kaCissie, u-Abdul Rahman, wathunyelwa ngukhokho wakhe u-Abdul Jamalee nokhokhokazi wakhe uBetsy ukuya kufundela ezakwalizwi kwiYunivesithi yase-Al Azhar eCairo, elinye lamaziko ezemfundo awayedumile ngelo xesha. U-Abdul Rahman wabuyela eKapa esiya kuhlala eWellington waza wazeka uKhadija Dollie besiba nabantwana abahlanu. U-Abdul wayenabanye abantwana abambalwa ngaphandle kwabomtshato noKhadija. U-Abdullah wayengomnye woonyana abathathu baka-Abdul noKhadija owayengugqirha.

Ookhokho bakaCissie babengamakhoboka. Ukhokho wakhe u-Abdul Jamalee wayezenzela umsebenzi othe chatha ohlawulayo ecaleni ezongela imali yokuthengela yena nomkakhe uBetsy inkululeko ebukhobokeni. Esi sibini sasebenza nzima ngenxa yoko sizivulela ishishini elincinane kunye. Yayiyivenkile ekwikona yesitrato iRoeland neHope Street eKapa. Eli shishini laqala kancinane kwindlu eguqulelwe ekubeni yivenkile. Ngentla komnyango, kwakupeyintwe kumva wetreyi yenkcenkce, igama elithi ‘IziQhamo zakwaBetsy’.

Ukusuka ekubeni ngamakhoboka u-Abdul noBetsy bakwazi ukuba ngabanini-shishini elinempumelelo kakhulu leemveliso ezifreshi. Kwaba ngeli shishini ezathi izizukulwana ezimbini ezalandelayo zakwa-Abdurahman zakwazi ukufumana imfundo esemagqabini. Okokuqala u-Abdullah wafunda kwiSikolo seMishini yeCawa yamaDatshi, ePauw Gedenkskool eWellington, wandula waya eMarist Brothers, iSikolo seCawa yamaRoma Katolika sabucala. Waqhubela phambili ephumelela imatriki kwiSikolo seKholeji yaseMzantsi Afrika (SACS) esasidumile, esaba ngunozala weYunivesithi yaseKapa.

Xa uyise kaCissie waya eGlasgow waza wathwesw’ isidanga njengogqirha ngo-1893 waza wabuyela eKapa ngo-1895 waseka indawo yonyango eyaqhuba de kwango-1930. KwakuseSkotlani apho u-Adbdullah wahlangana khona nonina kaCissie, uHelen Potter James, owayesaziwa ngelikaNellie. Wayeyintombi kaMnu John Cumming James, owayengummeli wezamafa waseGlasgow owadlala indima ebonakalayo kwiipolitiki zaseSkotlani apho wayesebenzela ukufumanela abantwana bakhe imfundo yasimahla yesinyanzelo. UNellie James, umsoshiyali, waqhubeka enolu xanduva ngokwasentlalweni. Loo nto yayithimb’ ingqalelo ka-Abdullah. EMzantsi Afrika, uNellie Abdurahman waba ngumququzeleli wamalungelo abantu abavinjw’ amalungelo ecaleni komyeni wakhe. Esi sibini siselula sahlala kwindlu esekupheleni kwesitrato iMount Street, eCastle Bridge eDistrict Six.

Njengoko uCissie wayesisikhanyiso sesizukulwana esizayo, wayengowasetyhini wokuqala ontsundu ukufumana isidanga see-master’s kwiYunivesithi yaseKapa.

AbaQeqeshi abaNinzi baseTyhini

UZainunnisa ‘Cissie’ noWaradea ‘Rosie’ yayiziintombi ezimbini ezazalelwa emtshatweni phakathi ko-Abdullah noNellie ngaphambi kokuba umtshato wabo uphelele kuqhawulo-mtshato ngo-1923. UGqr Abdurahman waphinda watshata, ezeka uMargaret Stansfield ngo-1925, baza bafudukela kwisitrato iKloof Street eKapa. UCissie wayetshatile kwaye efunda eyunivesithi ngelo xesha. U-Abdullah noMargaret baba nabantwana abathathu; umafungwashe uBegum, namaduna amabini, u-Abdullah omnci noNizamodien.

UZainunnisa ‘Cissie’ Abdurahman wayelithunjana likaNellie no-Abdullah ezalwa ngomhla wesi-6 kuNovemba 1897. Ikhaya labo eDistrict Six, elalisaziwa njengeNdawo yeeNdwendwe yakwa-Abdurahman, lalisoloko liyindawo exakekileyo. Phakathi kweenkokeli ezohlukahlukeneyo zepolitiki ngelo xesha ezazisoloko zityelela ikhaya lakhe yayizizinto zooHadji Ojer Ally, ooGhandi, ooJohn Tobin, ooClements Kadalie kwanooMatthew Fredericks. La madoda adlala indima ebalulekileyo ekuveleni kwe-APO. Athile kuwo ayenezikhundla kuMbutho weNkongolo wangaphambili owazala iNkongolo yama-Indiya aseMzantsi Afrika kwanombutho i-African National Congress (ANC). Abezepolitiki abangabelungu abanjengoJ X Merriman noJ H Hofmeyr nabo babetyelela kwa-Abdurahman. Abasetyhini bezepolitiki ngaloo mihla kwanonina ongummangaliso, uNellie, yayingabaqeqeshi bakhe ababaluleke kunene kubomi bukaCissie noRosie. Phakathi kwala manina kwakukho nombhali u-Olive Schreiner, inkokeli yama-Indiya uSarojini Naidu kwanetsha-ntliziyo eliselula laseLatvian, uRachel Alexander.

Xa uGqr Abdul Gool noCissie batshatayo, uSarojini Naidu wamkelwa ngabo kwikhaya labo. Ikhaya lakwaGool laqhubeka nesithethe sokubamba iingxoxo zepolitiki rhoqo ngeengokuhlwa zangoLwesine ‘nokuvulela wonk’ umntu’ ithuba lokuxoxa nokuphefumlelana, into leyo eyaqala kwa-Abdurahman.

UNellie wadlala indima emandla ekukhuleni kukaCissie kwezepolitiki yaye kukunina apho wafumana khona ukukhuliselwa nokuqeqeshelwa ubusoshiyali. Unina wayesebenza kwiBhodi Jikelele yezoNcedo yaseKapa naseWynberg, uMbutho wabaHlawuli beeNkonzo, uMbutho wamaNina kaMasipala, uMbutho wamaNina woShishino wandula kamva wakuyo neKomiti yezeMali yoMbutho weNkululeko yeSizwe. UNellie Abdurahman wayekuthanda ukulingana kwezemfundo nobulungisa kwezentlalo.

UNellie Abdurahman wayenguMongameli owaseka uMbutho wamaKhosikazi e-APO ngo-1909 – iqumrhu elalingabonelwa ntweni yinkoliso yababhali-mbali. Kwiminyaka emibini yokusungula kukaNellie Abdurahman uMbutho wamaKhosikazi e-APO kwikhaya lakhe, wakhula usiba namasebe angaphezu kwama-70. UNellie wayekhuthele nakwiipolitiki ngokubanzi, ingakumbi inkqubela-phambi yezemfundo yaye ngo-1928 watyunjelwa kwibhunga lesixeko kodwa akazange onyulwe. UNellie wayekwasisinqinanqina kwintshukumo yentsokolo yamakhosikazi, ekunye no-Olive Schreiner. Yaba lifuthe likanina owayelitsha-ntliziyo elingowasetyhini kwanomongameli woMbutho wamaKhosikazi e-APO okwenza uCissie azinxulumanise ne-APO ngoo-1920 yaye ebhala umhlathi wamanina kwiphephandaba layo.

E-UCT & noSam Kahn

Emva kokuqala abhalise kwiYunivesithi yaseKapa ngo-1917, uCissie wakha wachitha ixeshana ephendla-phendla iinkqubo ezohlukeneyo zezifundo ekwazibandakanya namatsha-ntilziyo angoomayitshe eyunivesithi. Apha wadibana namatsha-ntliziyo angamasoshiyali afana noLancelot Hogben kwanoTrotskyite Frederick Bodmer waba uyaqala ukuqhagamshelana namakomanisi. Kukwalapha apho wadibana khona okokuqala noSam Kahn umfundi wezomthetho ongumJuda e-UCT. Wayengumongameli weqela leengxoxo, wezomthetho nosihlalo woMbutho wabaFundi abangamaJuda. Ngo-1932 uSam Kahn wazimanya noMbutho wamaKomanisi oMzantsi Afrika (CPSA) waza kamva wasebenza njengoCeba wesiXeko. Ngo-1948 uSam Kahn wonyulwa ePalamente njengommeli wamakomanisi angama-Afrika. Wagxothwa kwesi sihlalo sePalamente ngo-1952. USam Kahn wayeza kuba liqabane nomhlobo kaCissie ubomi bakhe bonke, waza kamva waba sisinqanda-mathe neqabane lakhe.

Kwiminyaka eyalandelayo uNellie, umama kaCissie, waba ngumayitshe okude lee endodeni yakhe esamkela iipolitiki ezavelayo zesizukulwana sabantwana bakhe. KukuNellie apho uCissie wafumana khona ubusoshiyali ezenza wazimanya ne-CPSA ngo-1933, emva kokufakwa kubo nguRay Alexander noJohnny Gomas. Ngexesha apho i-CPSA yayiguqulwa ngokupheleleyo, wasebenza kwiZiko lezePolitiki (okanye iPolitburo) eyayiyikomiti yesigqeba esilawulayo se-CPSA. UCissie waqhubeka ekwiCPSA de yachithwa naxa yaphinda yavuka njengentlangano efihlakeleyo waba lilungu elifihlakeleyo le-SACP entsha. Kunika umdla ukuqaphela ukuba amagqabantshintshi angamabali obomi amaninzi athandwayo azama ukuyibetha ngoyaba le nkalo ebalulekileyo ebomini bakhe, ebonisa igalelo lakhe kumzabalazo wenkululeko.

Ngo-1919 uCissie watshatwa nguGqr Abdul Hamid Gool, owayekhuthele kwiipolitiki zama-Indiya aseMzantsi Afrika nowayekwalilungu le-APO. U-Abdul noCissie balizwa ngabantwana abathathu kumtshato wabo weminyaka eli-14 – uRustum, uMarcina, noShaheen. Kuwo wonke umtshato wakhe nokuba ngunozala uCissie waqhubeka nezifundo zakhe yaye ngo-1933 uCissie waba ngowasetyhini wokuqala ontsundu ukufumana isidanga see-master’s kwizifundo zengqondo e-UCT. Kwiminyaka emithathu kamva, ngo-1936, uCissie Gool wohlukana noGqr Abdul Gool, emshiya esiya kuhlalisana noSam Kahn, isenzo abantu abaninzi abasigqala njengamanyundululu. AbakwaGool baqhuwula umtshato ngokusemthethweni ngo-1942.

IDistrict Six – IZiko lezePolitiki

Ngelilixa babesatshatile, ikhaya lakwaGool kwisitrato iSearle Street, eDistrict Six, lalisindleka iintlanganiso rhoqo ngeveki ezimayela nepolitiki yasekhohlo namatsha-ntliziyo emibutho yabasebenzi nabanye abahambi. Abo babesibakhona kwezo ngxoxo nakwezo mbutho, enobana babezizithethi okanye abaphulaphuli, babequka abo babengamalibherali, abalandeli bakaMarx noLenin, abakaTrotskyite, abakaStalin, njl. Ababesibakhona kwiindibano zaseStreet yayiziimvumi ezifana nooGregoire Boozaaier nabazobi abafana nooFrieda Locke begudlan’ imihlana nabezepolitiki abanjengoSam Kahn, u-IB Tabata noMoses Kotane ababesoloko kanye njengoCissie,bexoxa nenkonde engumlibherali uGqr Abdurahman kwigumbi lokuhlala. Bazimanya namatsha-ntliziyo emibutho yabasebenzi ababesitsha ziintambo afana noRay Alexander no-Eddie Roux ekuphononongeni indima yabasebenzi kumzabalazo. Yile meko eyenza uCissie Gool wavelisa isakhono sokusebenza ngokusondeleyo nabezepolitiki bamacandelo ngamacandelo, ingakumbi iipolitiki zasekhohlo.

Eneneni uCissie Gool waba nendima enkulu kumanyano lweezepolitiki. Kodwa le nto ayitheth’ ukuthi wayengaboni gxeke ekubambeleleni ngokuqinileyo kwiingcamango zasekhohlo.

UGqr Abdul Gool wayebandakanyeke kakhulu kwaye ezithanda iipolitiki zeNkongolo yama-Indiya aseMzantsi Afrika (SAIC). Oobhuti basemzini kaCissie uGoolam Gool kwanoJainab Gool babeziinkokeli zoMbutho wabaSebenzi baseMzantsi Afrika abangabaLandeli bakaTrotskyite kwaye nangona babenyuk’ umnqantsa, uCissie wenza iinzame zokubambisana kunye nabo kwezepolitiki phakathi ko-1935 no-1942, enenkolo awayeyithanda yomanyano.

Ekuveleni koMbutho woManyano lwabo baNgengabo aBelungu uvuswa nguGoolam Gool, uJane Gool kwano-IB Tabata, uCissie Gool wohlukana nengcamango yabo elinganiselweyo ‘yengcamango egqibeleleyo njengekuphela kwesiseko somanyano’. Wayekholelwa ekuthini le ndlela yayinokubangela ungquzulwano neyantlukwano kwicebo likaCissie lokumanyanisa abantu ngokubanzi, kungengazizathu ezisekelwe kwiingcamango, kodwa kujoliswe kwizinto ezingumdla ngokubanzi.

UKwakha uManyano

Kwinto eyaba ludano nokutyeshela isithethe samaLibherali aseKapa kwaqalisa umkhwa kwiipolitiki zaseKapa owaqhubekeka ukususela ngoko. Ukuba ngoomayitshe kwaba sisiphelo ngokunokwaso kwaza kwavela ukhuphiswano olungaqhelekanga apho iqela ngalinye lalifuna kuthiwe lilo elingoomayitshe nelineenkolelo ezigqibeleleyo.

Ngokwahlukileyo yena, umgaqo wezepolitiki kaCissie Gool yayikukwakha umanyano nokujolisa kwimiba engundoqo exhalabisa uninzi lwabasebenzi abantsundu nokulunabisa olu manyano luquke nabanye abantu namaqela anomdla ekuthinteleni inkqubela eya kwindlela yobuNazi urhulumente waseMzantsi Afrika awayexhinele kuyo. Icebo lokunxaxha nongquzulwano lwabathile kumahlakani akhe okuqala ayemphepha ngandlela zonke. Noko ke uCissie waye waba nobuchule ekuhlakazeni eli cebo waze wazibizela abachasi abohlukahlukeneyo ‘kwikunene elitsha’ laseMzantsi Afrika. Loo nto ke yambizela nokugxekwa ‘kweengcamango zakhe ezingatshongo khona’ waze ‘wonyeliswa’ nguMbutho wabaSebenzi baseMzantsi Afrika yaye maxa wambi nangabathile boMbutho wamaKomanisi aseMzantsi Afrika okanye i-SACP.

UCissie Gool wenza izinto ezintathu ezamenza wathwal’ isithsaba njengongusopolitiki ongagungqiyo. Okokuqala walibeka bucala igama elinamandla likayise u-Abdurahman waze waqhubela phambili xa watshela kuGqr Gool. Kodwa umyeni wakhe kwaneepolitiki ezohlukahlukeneyo zosapho lwakhe zayenza yaguda indlela kaCissie owathi waphumela ngaphaya kokulinganiselwa kwazo. Zombini ezi yaba ziindlela ezithile zokuthwesw’ isithsaba – kulawulo lwamadoda ebomini bakhe. Kwabakhona ke nokuthwesw’ isithsaba kwimeko evalelekileyo yeYunivesithi yaseKapa eyamnika imfundo ebalaseleyo, kodwa eyeza namanye amatyathanga obulibherali nobukholoniyali bamadoda awambopha izandla neenyawo mayela nokucinga ngokukhululekileyo ngokuchasene nobukholoniyali.

UCissie Gool wafumanisa ukuba xa ethetha esidlangalaleni wayenelizwi elalinomtsalane ebantwini, emva kwentetho yakhe enkulu malunga nokuvota kwamanina ngo-1930. Wayegwayimbela into yokuba ingamanina angabelungu kuphela awayenelungelo lokuvota. Into eyenza uCissie wohluka kwabanye abaninzi yabonakala okokuqala kule ntlanganiso. Kwintetho yakhe wafikelela koyena ndoqo xa wathi; ‘ukuthetha asikokwenza’ watsho ebongoza abantu ukuba bamlandele, ngoko nangoko wakhokela umngcelele ongacetywanga oya epalamente ukuya kujongan’ emehlweni noHertzog nabaphathiswa bakhe.

UCissie Gool, unina uNellie nommi wangaphandle ongumkomanisi oselula waseLatvia owayengumhlobo kaCissi, uRay Alexander, itsha-ntliziyo lombutho wabasebenzi, baba nenxaxheba kwiintlanganiso ezininzi zasesidlangalaleni emva kwaloo mngcelele wawusiya epalamente, benyanzelisa ukuba wonk’ umntu wasetyhini avote.

UkuDibana kwaKhe noRay Alexander

UCissie wahlangana nomayitshe ongumkomanisi owayene-17 leminyaka ubudala nelingummi wangaphandle xa u-Alexander wema phakathi kwabo babezimase intlanganiso kwiHolo yesiXeko saseKapa ngo-1930. Into ekwakujoliswe ingqalelo kuyo yayikukutyhalelwa bucala kwamanina antsundu ekuvoteni. U-Alexander wathi ucinga ukuba isithethi senze imposiso ngokushiyelela into ethile. Isithethi esasiseqongeni yayinguSarojini Naidu, inkokeli eyaziwayo yeNkongolo yama-Indiya aseMzantsi Afrika. UCissie wayengusihlalo waloo ntlanganiso u-Alexander owayeze noJohnny Gomas kwaye wahlatyw’ umxhelo yile ntwazana kangangokuba wamemela uRay Alexander eqongeni nasekhayeni lakhe kamva.

UNellie Abdurahman wavumela uRay Alexander oselula ukuba asebenzise ikhaya lakhe ukwenzela iintlanganiso nokuhlanganisa amaqabane amaninzi ‘awayezidlulela nje ngendlela’, awayekumbutho wabasebenzi okanye awombutho. UGqr Abdul Gool waba ngugqirha ka-Alexander yaye kungekudala uRay oselula wayemphathela indimbane yabasebenzi namatsha-ntliziyo ombutho wabasebenzi nabombutho ngenjongo yokuwaxilonga ‘simahla’.

‘U-Aunty’ Ray njengoko wayebizwa njalo kamva ngabo bonke, waqhubela phambili esiba ngomnye wamatsha-ntiziyo emibutho yabasebenzi awayethandwa kakhulu eMzantsi Afrika, njengoko wabeka iziseko phantse kulo lonke uhlobo lwentlangano yabasebbenzi ekhoyo namhlanje. Waphila ngaphezu kweminyaka engama-40 emva kokubhubha kukaCissie wayesoloko ethatha ngomsebenzi wabo kunye. URay noCissie babenefuthe elikhulu komnye nomnye nangona ngamany’ amaxesha babekhe bangavumalani kakhulu. Ngamaqabane amaninzi angabasetyhini abohlukahlukeneyo ebomini bakhe ababa nempembelelo kuCissie Gool njengoko wayeqhubela phambili phakathi koo-1930.

Ngo-1933 uCissy Gool wazimanya ngokusesikweni noMbutho wamaKomanisi aseMzantsi Afrika apho wathi wafumana khona uqeqesho kwiminyaka emithathu kuJohnny Gomas, nakwimpembelelo elukhutthazo kaRay Alexander. Ngo-1938 i-CPSA yathatha isigqibo sokufudusela isigqeba sayo solawulo okwexeshana eKapa yaye ngelo xesha uCissie Gool kwakunye noRay Alexander, uJack Simons, uSam Kahn, uJohnny Gomas, noJames la Guma babekwisigqeba solawulo esasisaziwa ngokuba liZiko lezePolitiki, kunye noBill Andrews njengoSihlalo kwanoMoses Kotane njengososiba jikelele. Noko ke isihlalo sesigqeba se-CPSA emva koko asizange sifuduswe eKapa de kwasekuvalwen’ umlomo kwe-CPSA. Xa umntu ephos’ iliso kumaxwebhu e-CPSA awayevela kwiZiko lezePolitiki ngeli xesha, umntu uye abone ukuba inguqu ephawulekayo nomanyano lukaCissie ngokuchasene nobufasci nomhlaba, ukulingana nenkululeko zigqame okwekat’ emhloph’ ehlungwini.

AmaHlakani angamaKomanisi

Ngo-1935 uCissie Gool wayesebenza ngokusondeleyo neqela lamakomanisi aquka amabini awayenento eyayinokubizwa ngokuthi kukufika ‘kokuzingca ngebala elintsundu’ – uJohnny Gomas kwanoJames la Guma. Ngomhla woku-1 kuDisemba 1935, owawulusuku lokuBhangiswa kobuKhoboka, uCissie Gool wasungula uMbutho weSizwe weNkululeko (i-NLL) esiba ngumongameli wayo wokuqala. I-NLL yayingumbutho womanyano owahlab’ ikhwelo lokubambisana ngokwezepolitiki kwabo bonke abantu abacinezelweyo bechasa utshaba olunye lwabo, ‘amakhapitali angoongxowa-nkulu’. Umqondiso wawo yayilikhoboka elintsundu elinamatyathanga aqhawuliweyo, liphakamisele phezulu itotshi evuthayo, kwanesaci esithi, ‘Sifuna ukulingana, umhlaba nenkululeko’. Esi yaba sisihlandlo sokuqala nekuphela kwaso apho kwasetyenziswa iingcambu zobukhoboka zabantu baseKapa ngendlela ebalulekileyo yaye esi yaba sisihlandlo sokuzingca kuba sasiyenye yeenkcazelo ezibaluleke kunene kwimbali yoMzantsi Afrika.

Esi sihlandlo sokhelwa phezu kwesiseko seMvukelo yamaKhoboka ka-1808 eyayikhokelwa nguLouis van Mauritius no-Abraham van der Kaap eyakhokelela kwityala elikhulu kwawakhe axoxwa ngaphambili obhukuqo-mbuso nasekubulaweni kukaLouis nezinye iinkokeli. Emva kweminyaka engama-20 kamva kwaqhutywa ityala lesibini ngobukhulu kwimbali yethu, yaye amatsha-ntliziyo ali-156 asiwa ematyaleni. Umqondiso we-NLL osekelwe kwinkululeko yobukhoboka nokuwunika intsingiselo enkulu kumzabalazo obanzi wenkululeko wawunamandla. UCissie Gool wayeyintsika ekusekweni kwe-NLL yaye wonyulwa njengomongameli woMbutho weSizwe weNkululeko ngesizathu sokufuna umhlaba, ukulingana nenkululeko.

I-NLL yaba sisiqabu esicacileyo inesicwangciso esingabaxekanga sobulibherali esongamileyo kwiintshukumo zepolitiki de kwangelo xesha eKapa. Oku kwayitshintsha imeko yeentshukumo zepolitiki eNtshona Koloni kwaza kwayisitha i-ICU ne-APO ezazingamaqela ongamileyo ngaphambili kodwa ngoku awayebhong’ elele ngecala. Njengoko ubufasci babuqandusela kwelaseYurophu, imfazwe yamakhaya kwelaseSpeyin nefuthe loku elanxilisa ihlabathi liphela, uCissie Gool, uGqr Abdul Gool, uJohnny Gomas, uJames la Guma, uSam Kahn nabanye babesele bekhokela ekusunguleni uMbutho oChasene nobuFasci kwangaloo nyaka njengesandulela sokusekwa kwe-NLL.

UMbutho weSizwe weNkululeko, nangona wawuneenkokeli ezinamandla zamakomanisi, wawuyintlangano yasekhohlo eyayiquka amalibherali, abantu abangamatsha-ntliziyo edemokhrasi yobusoshiyali, abalandeli bakaGarvey, abakaTrotsky woMbutho wabaSebenzi baseMzantsi Afrika owawukhokelwa nguGoolam Gool, nabani na owayezinikele kwiphulo lomhlaba, ukulingana nenkululeko. Kwahle kwacaca ukuba le nto yayiza kuba yimbewu yongquzulwano lwangaphakathi ingakumbi phakathi kwabalandeli bakaTrotsky kwi-WPSA nabanye, naphakathi kwamalungu anamandla kakhulu ‘okuzingca ngebala elintsundu’ kwanabo babekholelwa ngokumandla kwelokuba abasebenzi abangabelungu babenendima ebalulekileyo kumzabalazo wenkululeko yoMzantsi Afrika. Kwakuphikiswana ngelithi, kufanele kugxininiswe kumzabalazo wabantu ngokubanzi kunokugxininisa kwinkululeko yomntu omnyama. Kule miba, kwanamalungu aziinkokeli zombutho wamakomanisi ayengaboni ngasonye yaye ukuza kuthi gaa kweli xesha kwakukho iiyantlukwano ezinzulu ngaphakathi kwi-CPSA, into leyo eyabangela ukugxothwa kwabathile kwanokudodobala kwawo kwezinye iingingqi. Izinto zazimhambela kakuhle uCissie Gool ekuzameni ukudibanisa zonke iingcamango nobudlelwane obunzima kuMbutho woManyano kwimiba emithathu engundoqo – umhlaba, ukulingana nenkululeko.

Iintlangano ezifana ne-APO ne-ICU, ezazisandul’ ukugxotha amakomanisi kwanamanye amalungu angasekhohlo phakathi kwazo, ngoku zazisithwe yi-NLL nemibutho emitsha yabasebenzi naliqumrhu layo elikhulu eliliBhunga leMibutho yabaSebenzi abaNgengabo aBelungu elalinamalungu ali-158,000. Indlela yezibongo necengayo yogwayimbo yaguqulwa ngokusisiseko liqonga le-NLL eyaqala ngokungenisa ingcamango yezepolitiki yentshukumo yenkululeko yesizwe eMzantsi Afrika, ngokwahlukileyo kwintshukumo ehlaziyiweyo eyayikhonya kwezepolitiki de kwaleli xesha. Le yaba yinguqu enkulu kwimbali yaseMzantsi Afrika kwaye yayibhexeshwa nguCissie Gool. Yavula indlela kangangeminyaka engama-60 eyalandelayo yomzabalazo wenkululeko yesizwe. Ezi ziganeko zehlayo zayiphembelela ngamandla i-CPSA kulo lonke eli ibe zaba nefuthe kwi-African National Congress eyathi uMbutho woLutsha lwayo ngo-1949 wayitshintsha ngokumandla le ntlangano.

Inguqu yesibini kwiipolitiki zoMzantsi Afrika eyayisele ikhona neyayinoCissie Gool esizikithini sayo njengombhexeshi, yayikungena kwengcamango yezepolitiki ‘yoManyano’ okanye ‘uMbutho woManyano’. Ingcamango yombutho omanyeneyo yavela kugwayimbo lwamaSpanish ingakumbi kwiJamani yamaNazi nakumazwe aseYurophu awayephantsi kwesisongelo sokwandiswa kweJamani aza afumana ingcaciso yawo kwiingcamango zikaGeorgi Dimitriov. KwiComintern yesi-7 eMoscow ngo-1935 uDimitriov watheth’ akwamila ngca malunga nemfuneko yomanyano oluchasene nobufasci yaye loo nto yaba ngumgaqo-nkqubo osemthethweni wombutho. I-CPSA kwakufuneka yenze umgudu omkhulu kakhulu kwi-NLL, kwiNdibano yawo oNke ama-Afrika nakwi-ANC ngenjongo yokwakha umanyano ngokubanzi. Le ngcamango yaba nendima enkulu ngoo-1950 nangoo-1980 yaqhubeka inkalo ebalaseleyo kwiipolitiki zaseMzantsi Afrika de kwayinkulungwane yama-21. Ngo-1938, uCissy Gool wonyulwa njengomongameli woMbutho oManyeneyo waBantu abaNgengabo aBelungu, owasekwayo ukuze kulawulwe iintlangano zenkululeko kumanyano oluchasene noongxowa-nkulu waza wamanyanisa iintlangano ezohlukahlukeneyo. La maqela ayefuna ukuba imibutho yezepolitiki ‘yabeBala’, ama-Indiya nama-Afrika omthonyama phantsi kombutho omnye. Ngo-1943 uCissy Gool waba lilungu lesigqeba solawulo seSebe lemiCimbi yeNtlangano eChasene nabeBala (anti-CAD). I-CAD yayilisebe elinuk’ umzondo lorhulumente wocalu-calulo. Emva koko wasebenza njengenkokeli yeBhunga yoGwayimbo laseKapa yaye kamva ngoo-1950 kwiBhunga loVoto.

UCissie Gool, phezu kwako nje ukugxekwa ngabathile basekunene nangabo babekwi-WPSA, wasebenza engadinwa njengomongameli woMbutho oManyeneyo ukuze amanyanise amaqela awohlukahlukeneyo nokujolisa ingqalelo yakhe emsebenzini. Ababemi kunye naye yayiyi-African National Congress, i-APO, i-ICU yaseKapa, i-CPSA, imibutho yabasebenzi eyayivela, i-WPSA nayiphina intlangano eyayixhasa ugwayimbo, imigushuzo neentshukumo zezihlwele zabantu phantsi kwePhulo loMbutho oManyeneyo. Phakathi koo-1930 kwakujoliswe ngamandla kwiMithetho esaYilwayo kaHertzog eyayingumzamo omandla wokushenxisa nawokugqibela amalungelo abantu abantu baseMzantsi Afrika. Le mithetho eyilwayo yaba ziziseko zokuqala zenkqubo yoCalu-calulo eyasungulwa ngo-1948 emva kokuba uMbutho wamaNashinali wangena elulawulweni. UCissie namanye amaqabane akhe amaninzi asekhohlo abona ukuba urhulumente waseMzantsi Afrika wayesekhondweni elifana nelamafasci aseSpeyin, e-Italy naseJamani. I-NEUF, eyasekwa ngo-1938, yayingumbutho obanzi ongafanelanga ubhidaniswe noMbutho oManyeneyo waBantu abaNgengabo aBelungu owasekwa kwiminyaka emihlanu kamva. I-NEUM eyasekwa ngo-1943 njengequmrhu lobufederali elalineenkqubo ezilishumi nelalinxulumene ngokusondeleyo neqela elinye leSebe lemiCimbi yeNtlangano eChasene nabeBala, iNdibano yawo oNke ama-Afrika kwaneBhunga eliChasene noCalu-calulo. Ngelilixa uCissie Gool wayedlala nendima njengenkokeli yesigqeba esilawulayo kwi-Anti-CAD, yena nabaninzi babeyigatya inkqubo yamaqela yabalandeli bakaTrotsky kule ntlangano eyayinembono elinganiselweyo mayela neentetho ezingaphesheya kule ithethwayo. Intlangano ye-anti-CAD yaqhubela phambili isiba liBhunga leeNgcebiso eziChasene naBebala (anti-CAC) yaye yasithwa yi-NEUM.

UmLo waNgaphakathi weePolitiki

Umzamo wokuqala wombutho omtsha womanyano we-NEUM awathi uGoolam Gool we-WPSA wadlala indima njengenkokeli kuwo, waphinda walohlukanisa kabini eli qela ngokusekelwe kwiyantlukwano yeengcamango ezilinganiselwe ngakumbi, esenza elokuqala lifadalale emva koko lavuselelwa nje kancinci njengoMbutho woManyano, kwiminyaka yamva. Nakamva, waphinda wavuka wema ngeenyawo ngoo-1990 njengeNtlangano yoMbutho wabasebenzi abangamaSoshiyali usenza umsebenzi ofana nqwa nalowo wawusenziwa yi-WPSA kwiminyaka engamashumi amahlanu ngaphambili. Kodwa ke i-NEUM inebali layo.

Noko ke, kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuba emva koMthetho wokuCinezela ubuKomanisi ngo-1950 oweza nenkxwaleko kubomi bamakomanisi afana no-Cissie Gool, ngo-1951 urhulumente wavela noMthetho oYilwayo wokuMelwa okwaHlukileyo owawujoliswe ekushenxisweni kwabavoti abangabebala kumqulu wabavoti. IKomiti eSebenza ngoVoto (i-FRAC) yasungulwa ngenjongo yokuchasa eli nyathelo litsha likarhulumente yaza yahlanganisa iintlangano ezahlukeneyo zoluntu kuqquka abaxhasi abangabelungu njengabo babesakuba semkhosini ababeluchasile ubufasci boMkhosi weeTotshi, iButho leSpringbok elalihlanganise abantu basemkhosini basekhohlo noMbutho wamaLungelo oLuntu. Amakomanisi awayexhuzul’ imikhala njengooCissie Gool, ooJohnny Gomas, ooReg September, kwanooSam Kahn kwanabanye abantu ababesakuba semkhosini bentlangano yeButho leSpringbok babephambili kweli phulo.

IiNdibano zeziHlwele zabaNtu

Intlangano eyayinobulibherali obuyekeyekana neyayixhasa uMbutho oManyeneyo (i-UP), uMbutho weSizwe weeNtlanga zabeBala nayo yathatha inxaxheba kweli phulo le-FRAC lichasene nokupheliswa kwevoti ‘yabebala’. Iindibano ezinkulu ezazisiba nabantu abangaphezu kwe-10 000 kwanemingcelele yogwayimbo zaqhutywa kunye namaphulo okufumana utyikityo kwaneentsuku ‘zokungaphangeli’. Yinto engazange izityulwe leyo ngaphambili eyokuhlanganiwa ngempumelelo koluntu lwawo onke amacandelo eMzantsi Afrika kwiqonga elibanzi lezepolitiki elichase urhulumente.

I-NEUM yasebenzisa indlela elinganiselweyo echasene nale ntsebenziswano ihlasela olu manyano lukhethekileyo ngokubanzi yaza yathumela kwi-ANC amagqabantshintshi esigxeko nawesinyeliso athi ngoku amakomanisi angekho mthethweni ‘angoozungul’ ichele’ ngokusebenzisana okanye ngokubambisana neentlangano eziyekeyekana ‘zabebala’ ezifana noMbutho weSizwe weeNtlanga zabeBala kwaneentlangano zabelungu eziyekeyeke.

UCissie Gool, owayelichule, wasal’ ebamb’ ongezantsi bubuntwana be-NEUM nokusilela kwayo ukubona iintlaselo zayo njengokudlalela ezandleni zikarhulumente owayesandul’ ukuvala umlomo nokwenza amakheswa amakomanisi yaye ngoku yayine-ANC, imibutho yabasebenzi nezinye iintlangano ezingamahlakani kwicala layo. Izifundo zokoyiswa kweriphabhliki yasekhohlo ngamafasci aseSpeyin nokuthi gqi kwamaNazi akuzange kufundwe nto kuzo njengoko abalandeli bakaTrotsky kwakunye nabo babefuna uVula-zibhuqe eMzantsi Afrika babedlala ngomlilo kanye njengoogxa babo baseYurophu. NgokukaReg, le nto yabo yinto ababeyithatha kwamanye amazwe kwiingcamango ezifedileyo nezisileleyo zeepolitiki zaseYurophu yaza yamkelwa njengobutsha-ntliziyo phakathi kweendidi eziphakathi zeengqondi.

Ukupheliswa kwabavoti ‘bebala’ kwandulelwa nguMthetho wokuCinezelwa kobuKomanisi owakhokelelwa kulawulo lobuzwilakhe ngamapolisa oCalu-calulo ngasekhohlo kwanokusekwa kwemibutho yesizwe yenkululeko nabantu abathile. Umsebenzi onzima owenziwayo ekuququzeleleni iphulo lomanyano olubanzi le-FRAC waphelel’ emoyeni ngo-1953 kwaye olu hlobo lomanyano olubanzi lwaphinda lwabonakala kwakhona ngoo-1980 njengakwi-United Democratic Front kwane-Mass Democratic Movement. Ubumbano olunamandla lweentlangano ezicinga ngokufanayo, ‘kuManyano’ nje, lwenzeka ngo-1955 njengeNkongolo yabaNtu, kwaze kwasungulwa noXwebhu lweNkululeko.

UCeba wesiXeko

I-CPSA yatshintshwa yayiSouth African Communist Party eyayisebenza ngokufihlakeleyo ngo-1953 kodwa yagqiba ekubeni ingenzi naziphina iintetho esidlangalaleni kunoko isebenzise eminye imibutho. Kungo-1960 kuphela eyathi yaphinda yaqalisa ukwenza iintetho esidlangalaleni.

Njengoko olunye unyawo lwakhe lwalukwimibutho enenkqubela ngemihla yakhe, uCissy Gool olunye unyawo lwakhe lwalukwiipolitiki zolonyulo ngokubanzi kwaye wonyulelwa kwiBhunga lesiXeko saseKapa, njengoceba weWadi 7 eWoodstock ngo-1938. Wayengowasetyhini wokuqala ontsundu ukuba nguCeba wesiXeko yaye wasebenza apho de walandulela eli limagad’ ahlabayo ngo-1963. Nalapha, abo babekwicala lasekhohlo bamgxeka bembiza ngokuthi ‘ngumhlaziyi’.

UReg September, omnye wabaseki boMbutho weSizwe weeNtlanga zabeBala, wachaza indlela uCissie Gool awayekholelwa ngayo ngokumandla ekusebenziseni naliphi na ithuba lezepolitiki ukuze afumane inkxaso yabasebenzi. Kwakhona wayeyichasile ngamany’ amaxesha indlela efanayo neyezenkolo yokuhlala nje esong’ izandla yeempikiswano zeengqondi ezazithandwa ludidi oluphakathi lwabantu ababesoloko belilisela ‘ngabasebenzi’ kodwa kungekho nto bayenzela abasebenzi, abantu abangaphangeliyo, kwaneempula zikaLujaca. UCissie Gool wayesoloko ethetha ngokwenza kunokuthetha nje ngomlomo. Wayebongoza abantu ukuba ‘benze le nto bayithethayo’ kwaye yayimkruqula into yabantu abafuna iinguqu abaqonozele ezincwadini bengazange bakhule kwiipolitiki zemihla awayengumfundi ngalo. Kunoko waphethukela kubantu abafuna iinguqu ababephuma kubasebenzi ababeziimpula zikaLujaca nababesiza ngaphambili kwimibutho yabasebenzi nakwimibutho ye-CPSA nakwizikolo zasebusuku.